Commanders must plan adequate quantities and types of forces to successfully conduct urban operations. Extensive combat in these urban areas involves units of division level and above. (c)     The civilian population may also serve as an important intelligence source for the enemy. Contiguous operations have traditional linear features including identifiable, contiguous frontages and shared boundaries between forces. To accurately visualize, describe, and direct the conduct of operations in an urban environment, commanders and their staffs must understand the basic fundamentals applicable to most urban operations. (See Appendix L, Continuous Operations.) : Fundamentals of Nursing, 9th Edition Fundamentals of Nursing 9th Edition Potter - Perry 01: Nursing Today Chapter 01: Nursing Today Potter et al. Transition Control. g.     Restore Essential Services. (See Appendix K, Media Considerations.). (1)     Symmetrical threats are generally "linear" in nature and include those enemy forces that specifically confront the battalion's combat power and capabilities. For low-angle artillery, the dead space is about five times the height of the building. BSS6: The Battle Staff SMARTbook, 6th Ed. Rail networks, airfields, canals and waterways, and other transportation systems. Figure 6-21 depicts a nodal defense where battalions employ different defensive techniques in order to achieve the SBCT commander's desired end state. He may assign his company zones within the battalion zone or AO in order to conduct systematic clearing (Figure 6-11). Figure 6-17 depicts a battalion executing a nodal attack. f.     Buildings. Figure 6-20 depicts a transitional situation where the battalion moves from an offensive to a defensive operation. The battalions conduct hasty offensive operations after a successful defense or as part of a defense, as a result of a movement to contact, a meeting engagement, or a chance contact during a movement; or in a situation where the unit has the opportunity to attack vulnerable enemy forces. Mortars are not usually placed on top of buildings because lack of cover and mask makes them vulnerable. The battalion prepares to continue the attack or prepares for future missions, including the possible transition to stability and support operations. Rules of engagement and other restrictions on the use of combat power are more restrictive than in other conditions of combat. Figure 6-19. Securing a foothold involves seizing an intermediate objective that provides cover from enemy fire and a location for attacking troops to enter the urban area. Tall buildings form deep canyons that are often safe from indirect fires. Sufficient covered and concealed routes for movement and repositioning of forces. c.     Discipline. The duration of this attack should not exceed the battalion's self-sustainment capability. Enemy forces may prey on soldiers poorly trained in basic infantry skills. Therefore, units must focus their efforts on controlling only the essentials to mission accomplishment. In the example shown in Figure 6-13, companies would find, fix, and finish the enemy, or they would find and fix the enemy and the battalion would assign another company the task of finishing the enemy (sequential or alternate bounds). The battalion must be prepared to conduct UO operations in both contiguous and noncontiguous areas of operations. While the MCS and FBCB2 do not depict the multiple levels of urban fighting and do not show precise detail in built-up area (BUA) mapping, their ability to transfer information quickly and to maintain the common operating picture throughout the battalion still represents a notable improvement over analog systems. Initial map and aerial photograph reconnaissance can identify key terrain and other important locations in the AO. The law of land warfare prohibits unnecessary injury to noncombatants and needless damage to property. Rapid consolidation after an engagement is extremely important in an urban environment. Nodal defense, different defensive techniques. HDS1: The Homeland Defense & DSCA SMARTbook, Disaster Response SMARTbook 1 – Federal/National Disaster Response, Disaster Response SMARTbook 2 – Incident Command System (ICS). In addition to being required to face symmetrical enemy threats, the battalion must be prepared to face enemy threats of an asymmetrical nature. A practical solution is to use existing civilian systems to supplement the unit's capability, understanding that this is a non-secure method of communication. Figure 6-22. Troops require additional equipment such as ladders, ropes, grappling hooks, and other entry equipment. Rain or melting snow often floods basements and subterranean areas, such as subways, and also makes storm and other sewer systems hazardous or impassable. Cities, metropolises, and megalopolises with associated urban sprawl cover hundreds of square kilometers. The role of mortar units is to deliver suppressive fires to support maneuver, especially against dismounted infantry. Commanders and staffs may have to analyze the urban area to identify critical infrastructure. (2)     In noncontiguous operations, the battalion may be required to operate independently, removed from SBCT CS and CSS assets by distance and time. Consolidate In urban areas, incomplete information, intelligence, and concealment may require the maneuver unit to move through, rather than around, the friendly unit fixing the enemy in place. Resistance Groups. Battalions conduct defensive operations by conducting counterreconnaissance missions and patrols (avoiding isolation); assigning battle positions or sectors to companies (defending); and consolidating or reorganizing and preparing for follow-on missions (transitioning). The battalion is likely to respond to both symmetrical and asymmetrical threats within the area of operations. Illumination during urban operations. They are normally established to reduce noncombatant casualties and provide a measure of force protection.) Through detailed analysis, the battalion commander may anticipate that he will be opposed by a strong, organized resistance or will be in areas having strongly constructed buildings close together. Recognized as a “whole of government” doctrinal reference standard by military, national security and government professionals around the world, SMARTbooks comprise a comprehensive professional library designed for all levels of Service. b. Depending on the tactical situation, companies within the battalion may have to isolate an objective by infiltration. The application of firepower may become highly restricted based on the ROE. They are extremely helpful when using the ladder method of adjustment because they may actually see the adjusting rounds impact behind buildings. A deliberate offensive operation is a fully synchronized operation that employs all available assets against the enemy's defense, IAW with the ROE. Mortar high-explosive fires are used more than any other type of indirect fire weapon during urban combat. Even conventional and paramilitary troops may have a "civilian" look. The battalion must always retain the ability to conduct offensive and defensive operations. Combined arms forces use maneuver and situational understanding to position forces to accomplish their assigned missions in urban environments. These compressed tactical factors include—. (Curfews are not imposed as punishment. (1)     Existing Structures and Masking. Open areas such as streets, alleys, and parks, should be avoided. Enemy forces may try to win the information war in direct opposition to the battalion's operations. Is there an enemy strongpoint located between 3. Commanders and planners of major operations must thoroughly understand the tactical urban battle as well as the effects of that environment on men, equipment, and systems. Additionally, subordinate companies may operate in isolated pockets, connected only through integrating effects of an effective concept of operations. He must also consider restrictions to the attacker's ability to maneuver and observe. 5. j. They use reconnaissance and security forces; information systems; and reports from other headquarters, services, organizations, and agencies. Added to this is the masking of fires caused by rubble and manmade structures. The IPB must address the known and potential tactics and vulnerabilities of all enemy forces and threats operating within and outside the urban area. Cities are population centers; transportation and communication hubs; key nodes of industrial, financial, and information systems; seats of government; and repositories of wealth. Urban Terrain and Urban Operations 11 upon to perform. fundamental. Preserving the ability to transition allows the battalion to maintain initiative while providing force protection. (See FM 3-06.11 for detailed information on the tactical employment of mortars in the urban fight.). Vukan R. Vuchic (2005). e.     Armored vehicles and antiarmor weapons are positioned to cover likely avenues of approach for enemy armored vehicles. Defend key and decisive terrain, institutions, or infrastructure. Planning and preparation for UO are generally the same as for operations on open terrain. Objective. w/Change 1 (PREVIOUS EDITION), The Battle Staff SMARTbook, 4th Rev. (b)     One company secures a foothold in OBJ Y. (Population of 3,000 inhabitants or less). Concrete-piercing 155-mm rounds can penetrate 36 inches of concrete at ranges up to 2,200 meters. A defense in an urban area, or one that incorporates urban areas, normally follows the same sequence of actions and is governed by the principles contained in Chapter 5. Urban environments also provide many passive dangers such as disease from unsanitary conditions and psychological illnesses. The following is an example that describes the actions of an SBCT infantry battalion conducting an infiltration with engineers attached. a. Appropriate fire support coordination measures are essential because fighting in urban areas results in opposing forces fighting in close combat. However, commanders should not allow casualty rates to reduce attempts to limit civilian casualties. The battalion may have to conduct either a hasty or deliberate attack of a village that is partially or completely surrounded by open terrain (Figure 6-15). Sample offensive task organization. Weapons with little of no backblast (gas-metered, soft launch, and so on). f.     Separate Combatants from Noncombatants. Examples include--, b. Assault teams typically contain Infantry with variable combinations of armor, artillery, or engineers. The ROE may require modification based on the type of mission to be conducted. Battalions normally operate in these urban areas as part of a larger force. Detailed intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance plan to assess the situation. Missions are more methodical. Many features on our site require Javascript & Cookies. 6-1 6101. Commanders use visualization, staffs use running estimates, and both use the IPB process to assess and understand the urban environment. The earliest known principles of war were documented by Sun Tzu, circa 500 BCE. Products that can be developed by the National Imagery Mapping Agency (NIMA) can be specifically tailored for the area of operations. Attitudes toward US forces (friendly, hostile, or neutral). The Naval Operations & Planning SMARTbook. In UO, the BCT engages by appropriately applying the full range of capabilities against decisive points leading to centers of gravity. Have to be indistinct the american people and their political leadership available, time, and people that form Economic! Failure to adequately shape the AO is properly shaped that two intermediate objectives are necessary in order to OBJ! 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