One hundred years ago today the South Pole was reached by a party of Norwegian explorers under the command of Roald Amundsen. Before reaching its projected landing place, however, this expedition suffered a series of mishaps, the chief of which was the loss of nearly all the dogs upon which relicance had been placed for transportation. Here is … The Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station stands at the southernmost point on the planet, marking the spot that its two namesakes raced toward in an epic fight for glory in 1911. the south-bound expedition had cleared that vast plain of floating ice which flows down from the great mountains of the interior and covers the southern part of Ross Sea throughout an area above 20,000 square miles with an ice sheet approximately 800 feet in thickness, and had begun to climb the heights which form the mountainous embayment at the head of Ross Sea. No less than four other expeditions were in the Antarctic regions at the time while Amundsen was forcing his way south. Prestud, to survey the Bay of Whales and the great ice barrier and to explore King Edward VII Land, of which practically nothing is known. Amundsen, born in Borge, near Oslo, in 1872, was one of the great figures in polar exploration. Filchner in the "Deutschland," elaborately equipped with wireless, magnetic, and meteorological apparatus, full of the hope of establishing a base southwest of Coats Land in as high a latitude as possible; and lastly, Capt. On 18 October 1911, after the Antarctic winter, Amundsen's team set out on its drive toward the Pole. In early 1911, Amundsen sailed his ship into Antarctica’s Bay of Whales and set up base camp 60 miles closer to the pole than Scott. He’d become not only the first person to reach the South Pole, but the first to reach both. Under the command of Roald Amundsen, the South Pole was discovered 100 years ago In the South Pacific, this type is well exemplified in New Zealand on one side and by the Andes of South America on the other. Until the close of the nineteenth century there was no part of the world about which less was known, and none about which so little interest was taken. At this point the elevation was 10,000 feet above the level of the sea. 1 November 1911 Scott’s main party sets out. Besides Amundsen's, there was the Japanese expedition under Lieut. Returning to Sydney, Wilkes announced his discovery, in the following words, in a report to the Secretary of the Navy, dated March 11th, 1840: "It affords me much gratification to report that we have discovered a large body of land within the Antarctic Circle, which I have named the Antarctic Continent, and refer you to the report of our cruise and accompanying charts, enclosed herewith, for full information relative thereto.". The expedition took 99 days and traveled over 1,800 miles. Amundsen and the Norwegian Flag at the South Pole The legendary limits of the Terra Australis of ancient and medieval cartographers, whose northerly coast was represented in art in the time of Ptolemy as extending eastward from Southern Africa toward China and inclosing the Indian Ocean, began to recede to the southward on the map of the world in the generation which produced Columbus, da Gama, and Magellan and disclosed America, the route to the Indies, and the circumnavigation of the globe. Wilhelm Filchner left early in the year 1911, intending to make a landing somewhere on the shore of the Weddell Sea, perhaps on Coats Land, on the opposite side of the Antarctic Continent from Capt. The Geographic South Pole is the southernmost point on Earth. Scientific American is part of Springer Nature, which owns or has commercial relations with thousands of scientific publications (many of them can be found at. Earlier that day, he killed his mother at the home they shared. Many weeks must elapse before we are in complete possession of all his data. CV1, No. The work of Krech, Gerlache, Borchgravink, and Bruce had not yet been done; the examinations of the “Belgica,” the “Francais,” and the “Pourquoi Pas”  had not yet made known the extension of Palmer Land to the southwestward along the southern confines of the Pacific Ocean ; the explorations of the German Antarctic Expedition in the "Gauss" had not yet confirmed the conclusion of Wilkes that the long coast which he had discovered in 1840 extended still farther to the westward ; the Antarctic Continent had not yet been entered at any point and consequently that acquaintance with the general topography which constitutes the first essential to the scientific investigation of a country was wholly wanting. In addition, Henrik Lindstrøm was included as a cook. On December 14, 1911, Amundsen’s expedition won the race to the Pole and returned safely to base camp in late January. However, Amundsen was a stubborn and remarkably resilient and determined individual, so he did not rest until he reached the North Pole. In the southern part of Patagonia the Andes are turned from their meridional course and run eastward across Tierra del Fuego. In less than a month. In 1911, he sailed to the Antarctic and he established a base in the Bay of Whales. Amundsen was aware of Scott's objective, but Scott was not aware that Amundsen was right behind him. Shirase, which had to retreat to Australia last spring in order to replenish its supply of dogs, and which Amundsen says landed on January 16th at the Bay of Whales, two weeks before he sailed for home; Dr. Mawson's Australian expedition, for which $215,000 had been raised up to November 1st last, and which was to land three parties between Cape Adare and Gaussberg; the German expedition under Lieut. Scott’s expedition was less fortunate. the main party made the final start for the South Pole, leaving a subsidiary party to carry on explorations and make a geological collection in King Edward VII Land. By G. W. Littlehales, Hydrographic Office, United States Navy. © 2021 A&E Television Networks, LLC. Although he carried out a scientific programme, his avowed aim was to be the first man to reach the South Pole. In October, both explorers set off—Amundsen using sleigh dogs, and Scott employing Siberian motor sledges, Siberian ponies, and dogs. This is suggested by the living and fossil floras and faunas of these lands. But if you see something that doesn't look right, click here to contact us! It is probably continued around the southern Pacific meeting the end of the New Zealand line and the Victoria Range in the mighty mountains which Amundsen, in his approaches to the South Pole, discovered in the shape of what he has named the Maude Range stretching off to the southeastward as far as 88 degrees south. On 14 December 1911, the Norwegian explorer Roald Amundsen (who had already led the first expedition to traverse the North West Passage, and would go on to lead the first successful attempt to cross the Arctic by air) and his team became the first human beings to reach the South Pole, just over a month before Robert Falcon Scott’s ill-fated Terra Nova expedition. After rounding up three other men to help him surprise the ...read more, President Abraham Lincoln announces a grant of amnesty for Emilie Todd Helm, his wife Mary Lincoln’s half sister and the widow of a Confederate general. The first is the British Expedition under the command of Capt, R. F. Scott, who was the leader of the British National Antarctic Expedition of 1901 to 1904. 2 - Roald Amundsen 1872 - 1928 Norwegian Roald Amundsen led the first successful expedition to reach the South Pole, he arrived there on the 14th of December 1911. History tells far fewer stories about him than it does about Robert Falcon Scott, who reached the Pole a month later to find a Norwegian flag stuck in the ice, and who Amundsen himself states that part of his journey was much like a pleasure trip--"excellent ground, fine sledging, and an even temperature." To be sure, there were storms, but not those frightful hurricanes which thwarted Shackleton. The pardon was one of the first under Lincoln’s Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction, which he had announced less than a ...read more, On December 14, 1939, the League of Nations, the international peacekeeping organization formed at the end of World War I, expels the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in response to the Soviets’ invasion of Finland on November 30. The Norwegian explorer had been locked in a … Amundsen left a tent and a letter addressed to the King of Norway with a request to Scott to deliver it. 6 hours ago — Caleb A. Scharf | Opinion, January 8, 2021 — Ewen Callaway and Nature magazine, January 8, 2021 — Maxine Joselow and E&E News, January 8, 2021 — Members of The Oncology Think Tank | Opinion, January 8, 2021 — Robin Lloyd | Opinion. He later made attempts to become the first explorer to fly over the North Pole. 23 min. 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